WAEC Yoruba Answers 2023 for Tuesday 16th May 2023 (Obj & Essay)
WAEC Yoruba Objective and Essay Questions and Answers 2023 for 16th May 2023 Expo Runz
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WAEC Yoruba Objective and Essay Answers 2023
Waec Yoruba Objective and Essay Answers 2023 for 16th May 2023 with questions Objective and Essay 100% verified official questions and answers for senior secondary schools.
Waec Yoruba Objective and Essay Answers 2023: here are the verified Waec 2023 Yoruba Objective and Essay Questions and answers for SS3 students for Tuesday 16th May 2023. Waec 2023 Yoruba Objective and Essay Questions and Answers.
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(i) moyọ̀sorẹ̀ – mo yọ sí orẹ (í)
(ii) idikọ – ìdí ọkọ̀(ọ)
(iii) jẹsẹ – jẹ̀ isé (i)
(iv) etido – eti odò
Aroko Lori igi Owo (Igi Ope)
Igi ope je igi ti Olorun yo nu si pupo julo fun iwulo omo eniyan pelu iwulo fun eranko inu Igbo ni Pataki julo igi ope je igi ti a gbin ni ile Yoruba Pataki julo ni orile ede Naijiria, ati ile Afirika, ki awon oyinbo alawo fun fun to mu eso ope ti amo si eyin losi ilu oyinbo bi Burasili, Ile Larubawa, ile mexico, ile Amerika, ati awon ile oyinbo, ti ako le daruko tan aimoye egberun odun seyin ni igi ope ti wa ti alepe ni igi aba laiye
IGI OPE: Igi ope ama pe laiye gege bi omo eniyan se ma unpe laiye orisirisi igi ope ni owa ope miran ma un lo ogorun odun laiye tabi jubelo igi ope agbon maun lo to ogorin odun laiye tabi jubelo ti ope ba pe laiye tan ti igi ope naa ba ku awon eranko mi ran ma un fi inu igo igi ope se Ile eranko bi okete, okere, ejo, ekute, kokoro, bi ogoungo, oyin, ti otun ma wulo fun eranko ati eda eniyan
ERANKO: Eranko awon eranko pupo loma unje eyin gegebi ounje oojo won fun apere eranko bi okere, oya, okete, ati awon orisirisi eye ati awon eranko miran ti akole daruko won tan
AJE: Aje walara ope ti otiku ti ale fiwe iha aje yi ni won maunlo latifi yin ibon pelu eroja bi ahaya, etu, aje, won awaki daradara pelu opa ibon won ski aje naa daradara ki won to me yin ibon naa fun eranko tabi fipa oun koun
YIYO EYIN: Yiyo eyin kuro lara soo so
SOO SO: Soo so je ile ti eyin maun wa ni nure sugbon olewu pupo nitoripe soo so le gun eniyan ni owo tabi ese ki owo naa si ma se eje tabi ibi kibi ti oba ti gun eniyan lara awon elomiran tun maun lo soo so fun ogun lilo
EKU: Eku ni ibiti won ti maun se epo pupa ninu gorodomu ni unla ti eyin ba ti jinna tan won agun ninu koto ti won unpe ni eku ibe ni won ti mayo epo pupa loto, ekuro, iha, ikete ti won ma fiunje isu sise tabi isu yiyan
IGI OPE : Je igi ti o ma un so eso Pataki ti o bati dagba tan eso naa le wulo lorisi risi ona
IMON: Imon je ewe ope ti won ma unlo lati fiko ile keke bi ahere, atibaba, tiama unlo ni laiye ojoun ni unkan bi odun 1850, odun 1950, odun 1960 ati odun 1970, ni igbayen ni awa ni ilewe alakobere imon ni ama unfiko kilasi ati atibaba ti won ti awon eniyan pataki ti maunjoko ti won baunse ayeye awon eniyan bi Oba ilu, ijoye, olori ile eko, ati awon oluko ile iwe olori esin bi esin islam, esin kirisiteni, imon yi naa ni won tun maunlo fun opolopo ere idaraya
wo oremi Olorun Oba da unkan lorisirisi fun anunfani awa eda eniyan ti won ba fi igi ope we eniyan oma dara pupo toripe kosi eya ara ope ti kowulo ki Olorun Oba Olojo oni jeki aiye wa dara ju aiye igi ope lo.
ISELE LAABI KAN TO SOJU MI
Ijanba ina kan ti o sele loju mi waye ni ojo kerinla osu keji odun 2013. O wa ye ninu soobu kan ni alaguntan, iyana ipaja. Soobu yi ko jina siibi ti ise mi wa. Soobu naa wa ni abe ile alaja meta ti o do ju ko ilepo mobili ni alaguntan.
Ninu soobu yi foomu ibusun niwon nta nibe ti won npe ni matiraasi. Oja yii si kun inu soobu yi biba. Gbogbo ita soobu naa ni foomu naa wa. Omoyibo kan ni oni soobu naa. Ni ojo ti isele laabi yi sele, nkan kekere ni o fa sababi. Eeyan kan wa ti o sese gba soobu tire legbe soobu oni foomu yi. O wa pe awon ajorin, weda lati wa ba a jo awon irin kan po ninu soobu naa. Soobu tuntun yi ati ti onifoomu si fegbe kan arawon ni.
Bi ogbeni weda se n ba ise jorin jorin re lo, ina weda n se yo, o nta jade bo tin sise naa. Lai mo wipe ina na ti ta ba okan lara awon foomu to wa legbe soobu naa. Ko se ni to tete kofiri nkankan. Nigba to maa fi to ogun iseju opolopo foomu ti lana ninu soobu lohun. Eefin ti bole. Ina tinso laulau la be dekini. Eefin nlanla ti bo gbogbo ile alaja meta naa. Awon eniyan tin sa kijokijo. Ariwo tin so.
Ese ero tipe jo, awon eniyan ti n gbiyanju orisirisi nkan lati pa ina na. olomi ti nda omi, olose tin da ose si nu ina na, awon to ni agolo iyefun panapana gbe ti won jade won tee sinu ina yi sugbon kaka ko san lara iya aje ina yi, pipele lo n pele sii. Laipe ina na ti ran awon soobu to wa legbe ibe.
Nigba tii wahala ina yii maa fi bere ogbeni weda ti pari ise, ko mo nkankan to sele, nigbatii won lo pe de, to yo lookan, to ri ina to nbinu laulau, baba yi daku lo gborangandan ni o. Won ro mi lee lori kotoo ji ni o.
Adura mi ni wi pe oluwa ko ni je kari iru isele laabi yi mo. Imoran mi fun awon onise owo paa paa julo awon ti o nlo ina ninu won, ni wi pe ki won tun bo maa kiyesi sara. A o ni ri ja ina o. ki awon oni soobu maa ri wi pe won pa gbogbo ina soobu ki won to o ma lo sile.
(a) Agbalagba – Àgbàyín Àdalẹ́
(b) Eni ti o dun – E kú Ìdúró
(D) Awọn ti o se igade lọwọ
(ẹ) Eniti o fe woolu – E káá bọ̀
(f) Eniti o ṢeṢe bimọ – E kú ọwọ́ lomi
(g) Eni ti ologun Sinu –
(gbe) Eniti yamba Selu Si – A Koo nituru rẹmọọ
(h)Eniti o pe o lati wa jeun – A gbabi re
(i)Eniti o wa ni ipo ola –
(a) Wànálà – ọ̀rọ̀ orúkọ
(b) Mo – Ọ̀rọ̀ arọ́pọ̀ orúkọ
(d) Wàhálà – ọ̀rọ̀ orúkọ
(E) ÀVLON – Ọ̀rọ̀ Arọ́pọ̀ afarajórúkọ
(F) ÌBÀDÀN – Ọ̀rọ̀ Ọ̀rúkọ
(G) PUPA – Ọ̀rọ̀ Àpèjúwe
(gb) Ní – Ọ̄rọ̀ Atókùn
(h) Sùgbọ̀n – Ọ̀rọ̀ Àsupò
(I) Wa – Ọ̀rọ̀ ìse
YORUBA- OBJ ANSWERS ANSWERS-Examking.Net
Oja je ibi ti karakata ti ma n sele. Awon ti won ni oun jije tabi oun eelo yoo gbe won wa si oja, awon ni a npe ni oloja. Bee ni awon ara ilu ati enikeni ti o ba fera oja yoo wa si inu oja lati wara.
Oruko oja to wa ni ilu mi ni oja Irede, oruko ilu mi ni Awade . O wa lara awon ilu ti a kopo si abe Egbado ti a tun pe ni Yewa. Orisirisi awon oja miiran tun wa ni ilu wa. Awon naa ni oja ita oba, oja sawonjo, oja ilusa ati bee beelo.
Ojo karunkarun ni won maa nna ja Irede. Aarin ilu Awade ni oja naa wa. Oba Ajelanwa ni itan sope o da oja naa sile nibi Ogorun odun seyin. Inu oja yinaa ni idiko awon onimoto wa. Moto to lo si orisi ilu ni o wa nibe. Nibe naa ni awon moto tii won ngbe oja wa lati igberiko, lati wa se oro aje ninu oja nla.
Niso niso ni awon oja naa wa. Biriki ni won sifi ko awon iso towa ninu oja naa. Biso alata sewa ni iso oni gaari wa. Awon iso miiran ni: Elelubo, alagbo,onisu,elepo ati bee beelo. Iso kookan ni o si ni olori iso. Gbogbo oja si ni iya loja ati awon alakoso ati oloye oja.
Oja yii je oja to gbajumo, to si je ilumoka kaakiri ile Yoruba. Enikeni to ba feera gaari, epo tabi egusi ledinwo mo wi pe oja Irede ni o ye ki awon ti rii ra. kosi alajapa kan ti yoo so pe oun o mo Irede. Ti kii ba se ti oja yi ni ko se ni ti yo mo ilu wa. Oja yii lo je ki amo agbegbe naa. Oja yi lo fun ilu yi lokiki. Oun lo je ki ilu naa ni asaaju nile igbimo asofin. Oun naa lo mu ki eto mayederun ijoba fi de odo ti won naa.
Nitori oja yii se pataki fun eto oro aje ipinle Ogun ati ibile ariwa Yewa. Ijoba ti ba won da oda si opolopo ona ti o wo oja naa. Ilu Awade funrare si ngbadun ina ijoba. Omi igbalode wa fun won. Ijoba si fun won ni ile eko alakobere ati ti girama.
Awon asaaju oja Irede naa sin se bebe. Won ni awon owo oja ati iso ti won maa ngba lowo awon oloja. Eleyii ni won fin tun oja yii se. Won kii duro de igba ti ijoba to wa bawon da soro ki won to gbe igbese lori re. Owo yi ni won fi nsanwo awon agbale oja ati awon olode. Ninu re naa, won a yo ti awon oloye oja ati t’ Oba ati awon ijoye won, ninu re naa ni won tin se awon etutu ati awon asa isembaye to ba ye ki won se.
Bi eniyan yoo wa raja ni oja Irede, o gbodo jiwa ni. Afemojumo loja. Nigba yii, eeyan yoo ri oja ra lopo. Owo eni ni oja ni eniyan yoo ti ra ledinwo. Sugbon ti ile ba ti nmo ki eniyan to wara oja, yoo ti ma dowo awon alarobo ti won a ra lati tunta. Awon wonyii yoo ra ledinwo lowo oni nkan won awa gbe owo lee lati tun ta.
Isoro akoko ti mo ri wi pe oja yi ni ni pe, bi won se da oda si awon ona ti o wonu oja yi to, ko si oda ninu oja yii, ti ojo bawa ro ni ki ewa wo arisa oja yi. Erofo yoo ti poju. Awon oko yoo ma wa ri wole. Eleyii kobo ju mu, ki ijoba bawa tun ona inu oja yi se.
Isoro keji ni wi pe, bi eniyan bara oja sile. Ibaaje oja sile meji, awon kan bi egbe omo oni moto yoo de lati wa gba owo lori oja te e ko si le. Iye ti won si maa ngba maa nju tabi ko fere to iye teeyan fira oja yen nigba miran lo. Osi da miloju wi pe kii se gbogbo owo ti won ngba yii lo nde odo ijoba.
(i) Subsistence and Commercial Activities:
Agriculture is the main economic activity. Grain is the staple diet, including Guinea corn, millet, maize, and rice. The Hausa also grow and eat root crops and a variety of vegetables. Cotton and peanuts are processed and used locally, but part of the harvest is exported. The Hausa practice intercropping and double-cropping; their main implement is the hoe.
(ii) Industrial Arts:
There are full-time specialists only where there is an assured market for craft products. Men’s crafts include tanning, leatherworking, saddling, weaving, dying, woodworking, and smithing. Iron has been mined, smelted, and worked as far back as there are Hausa traditions.
Trade is complicated and varied. Some traders deal in a particular market, as distinguished from those who trade in many markets over a long distance. This dual trade strategy, augmented by the contributions of the Cattle Fulani, enabled the Hausa to meet all of their requirements, even during the nineteenth century.
(iv) Division of Labor:
Hausa society traditionally observes several divisions of labor: in public administration, it is primarily men who may be appointed, although some women hold appointed positions in the palace. Class determines what sort of work one might do, and gender determines work roles. When women engage in income-producing activities, they may keep what they earn
(v) Land Tenure:
The rural householder farms with his sons’ help; from the old farm, he allocates to them small plots, which he enlarges as they mature. New family fields are cleared from the bush.
(i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.
(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.
(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.
(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.
(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.
i. The Nature of Islam:
The nature of Islam as a religion accepting polygamy to some extent, its tolerance of traditional African religions, its simplicity of doctrine and mode of worship helped propagators to make converts in Africa. These factors also made Islam easily adaptable to the African communities with which it came in contact. Again, the Islamisation of Africa was paralleled by the Africanisation of Islam. The making and sale of charms and amulets, which were believed to offer protection against evil forces and generally ensure success in life, were important in winning over converts.
Another major reason that led to the rapid spread of Islam in West Africa was the trans-Saharan trade network. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. It was these resident Muslim traders who converted the rulers and the principal local town’s people to Islam. Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from 1349 to 1385, the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum.
iii. Activities of Muslim Clerics:
Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts. Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:
Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, scholar and architect from Granada were both invited by Mansa Musa to accompany him on his return from his celebrated pilgrimage in 1324/5. Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.
Again, the great Mande scholar, Abd Rahman Zaite (now identified as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite) settled in Kano on the invitation of Rumfa, the King of Kano. He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises.
Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili (1477-78) established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.
iv. Activities of Rulers:
Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion. With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers. The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook – such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further.
v. Holy War:
What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims. This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.
The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in 1023, soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in 1040. The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between 1048 and 1054 by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin. Between 1056 and 1070s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By 1087 the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north.
Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.
i. The constitutions enacted during this period were the Clifford Constitution in 1922.
ii. The Richards Constitution in 1946.
iii. The Macpherson Constitution in 1951.
iv. The Lyttleton Constitution in 1954.
v. In 1946 a new constitution was approved by Westminster and promulgated in Nigeria.
i. In the executive council, The ministers were not given portfolios. They acted as mere officers of government. They had no power to issue orders to their directors. However, they were collectively responsible for all policy decisions.
ii. There were also criticism, on the creation of unequal status and adoption of two houses of legislature (bicameral in the Northern and Western regions only).
iii. The continued appointment of special members in the House of Representatives, House of assembly and the Electoral college system of election, were some of the serious criticisms.
iv. Even though the 1951 constitution was the result of series of consultations with the various levels of government and educated elites, it received some criticisms from the Nigerian nationalists who saw it as a constitution built on compromise.
v. It could be stated that the 1951 constitution enjoyed wide publicity. Generally the constitution could be seen as constitution that recognized the demands of the people.
(i) Ethnically based Federal Regions, with uneven size and power:
The first structural weakness which set the First Republic in Nigeria for political crisis was its ethnically- based federal regions and the asymmetry in size and power between them. Upon independence, Nigeria was composed of three federating regions: Northern, Eastern and Western regions. (Later in 1963 a new region, the Mid-West, was carved out of the West following a crisis in that region). Each of the regions was dominated by one of the country’s three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the West and Igbo in the East. This arrangement presided over by the dominant ethnic groups placed minorities at a considerable disadvantage in the competition for jobs and resources at the regional level.
(ii) Ethno-Regional Political Parties:
The second structural weakness which afflicted the First Republic was the emotive association between political party and ethno- regional identity. This meant politics largely “revolved around ethnic-based regional…parties”. Reflecting the tripodal ethnic balance, three parties bestrode the political scene like titans and thus shaped the destiny of the First Republic: Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), and the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). All three parties originally emerged out of ethno-cultural associations: NPC from Jam’iyar Mutanen Arewa (Association of Peoples of the North) AG from Egbe omo Oduduwa (Society for the Descendants of Oduduwa.
(iii) The political alignment which formed after the 1959 election:
It can be argued that the political constellation which emerged after the 1959 election was the most potent of the young republic’s structural weaknesses. It had huge impacts on the stability of the soon to be an independent nation. The North-South governing coalition between the NPC and the NCNC, variously described as “unnatural”, a coalition of “strange bedfellows”, only accentuated the republic’s structural imbalances. On immediate observations, it was certainly a partnership of unequal – with the NPC being by far the more powerful of the two governing parties. This meant the NCNC was always acutely sensitive to the tenuousness of its share of power.
(iv) The fear of ethnic domination:
The last and deepest of the structural weaknesses was the fear of ethnic domination which pervaded the politics of the First Republic. The Yorubas and Igbos in the two southern regions feared that the Hausa-Fulanis would use the North’s demographic preponderance to perpetuate northern hegemony and monopolise federal resources for their region; Hausa-Fulanis, in turn, feared that in an open contest, the Yorubas and Igbos, being the more educated, would dominate the political and economic structures of the federation.
(v) The disintegration of the AG, 1962-63:
The collapse of the AG’s political power between 1962 and 1963 produced far-reaching effects. The crisis that engulfed the party stemmed from its “staggering defeat” in 1959. It had been ‘relegated’ to the opposition. The NCNC had made impressive inroads into its regional heartland, securing for itself 21 seats in the AG’s political turf by exploiting minority discontent within the Western Region.
The statement by the group’s Acting President, Chief Anthony Ofoni, called on Urhobo youths in the 24 kingdoms and other ethnic youth groups in Delta State to mobilise into the farmlands after the expiration of the ultimatum and evict the herdsmen..
“This is to inform the Fulanis of Usman Dan Fodio leadership that after 48 hours, open grazing of cattle by nomadic people will be forbidden in Delta Central Senatorial District.
“The safety of herdsmen and their cattles still in the region after the expiration of the notice will no longer be guaranteed because they have sacked some of our communities in Uwheru and killed many Abraka farmers and we viewed the threat as a big insult on all Deltans”.
Reiterating it’s support for the decision of the 17 Southern Governors to put an end “to the old fashioned open grazing of cattle in the region”, the statement called on all ethnic youth groups to come out enmasse to defend their fatherlands, Delta State by chasing out the killer headsmen from the State.
Meanwhile, NAPS, in an open letter to the President signed by its Senate President, Comrade Dio Oghale Emeka Rex, frowned at the threat over Governor Ifeanyi Okowa’s support for the ban on open grazing in the Southern part of Nigeria.
(i) Religious Influence; Islam encourages the traditional teachings of brotherhood, generosity, sexual discipline, honesty, orderliness, kindness and mutual love. Polytheism which initially prevailed was replaced with monotheism, the central theme of Islamic teaching. Traditional rituals that paid homage or reverence to natural objects were regarded as acts of idolatry; the most heinous sin in Islam.
(ii) Educational Influence; The introduction of Islam to Nigeria was important because Arabic is regarded as the language of Islam, as performing some Islamic rituals required mastery of the language. As a result, many Qur’anic and Arabic schools sprung up in all places where Islam was launched.
(iii) Influence on Language; The adoption of Arabic language as an academic discipline in Nigeria paved the way for language diffusion. Some loan words in several Nigerian languages come from Arabic language, and were imported into Islam.
(iv) Social Influence; Islam also influenced many other parts of social life of Nigerian communities. One feature common to several Nigerian communities’ culture is that they fully respect their traditional rulers.
(v)Absolute attributes: God possesses infinite attributes of perfection that are inseparable from His essence (i.e., they are not achieved through acquisition), such as knowledge, power, wisdom, justice, and more. All perfection is from Him and terminates with Him.
God is He who
(i)The Aare is also to foster unity among the Yorubas and become a rallying point for the promotion of Yoruba culture and tradition. In this regard, he must work assiduously with other eminent personalities in the Southwest to actualise a common front on the issues that can advance both the Yoruba and national interests.
(ii)The Aare Ona Kakanfo title is a very sensitive position in Yorubaland. It was a title given to the generalissimo, the war general during the old Oyo Empire. At the time, an Aare Ona Kakanfo would lead battles, fight wars, mobilise, train soldiers and conquer the enemies. The introduction of the title was informed by the need to fortify the ancient, pre-colonial army of the old Oyo Empire, which at one time could boast of over 100,000 horsemen.
(i)They advised the Alaafin on good governance. And they helped in the maintenance of law and order. In other words They took part in the 3 installation of a new Alaafin.
(ii)They performed religious functions. And they performed judicial functions. In other words they assisted in the organization of youths for communal development
(iii)They took part in the selection of a ne% Alaafin. And they initiated laws. In other words they acted as checks on the powers of Oba e.g. removal of Alaafin from office. and they ensured implementation of policies
(i) Economic dependence and resource exploitation ; The basic idea behind colonization had aspects of economic dependency baked right into it. The British took the country’s resources, land and mineral included, leaving the natives dependent on them to generate funds.
(ii) Constant war and conflict; When Nigeria was overrun in the name of imperialism, it marked the beginning of conflict and war and these conflicts were largely fueled by the colonizers in a well-thought divide and rule strategy.
(iii) Loss of culture and identity; When the colonialists took over the country’s rule during the colonial era, the natives suffered a massive culture and identity loss. The British brought and imposed their culture, language, behaviour, beliefs, and other ways of life on the Nigerians. This then led to the natives abandoning some of their customs and culture in favour of those brought by the colonizers.
(iv) Loss of land One of the biggest reasons for British colonialism in Nigeria was the abundant resources. The British needed the land to create massive plantations for their economic gain.
(v) Slave trade and humiliation; The introduction of colonialism into Nigeria, the twisted idea of the slave trade followed suit. At the time, the colonial masters needed slaves to work in their home countries or in the colonies. Additionally, imperialism reduced the status and prestige accorded to Nigerian leaders.
The struggle for power between the Shuwa and Kanuri people in Borno caused a division that eventually led to the decline of the empire and borno lost its trade to Sokoto in the West and the control of the Eastern trans-Saharan trade routes which was the bedrock of the empire’s greatness was also lost. In other words the peasants were neglected and the dynasty made more demands on the meager resources of the poor. Although the dynasty ended, the kingdom of Kanem-Bornu survived. Umar could not match his father’s vitality ,and gradually allowed the kingdom to be ruled by advisers. Bornu began a further decline as a result of administrative disorganization, regional particularism, and attacks by the militant Ouaddai Empire to the east. The decline continued under Umar’s sons. In 1893, Rabih az-Zubayr led an invading army from eastern Sudan and conquered Bornu. Following his expulsion shortly thereafter, the state was absorbed by the British-ruled entity that eventually became known as Nigeria. From that point on, a remnant of the old kingdom was (and still is) allowed to continue to exist in subjection to the various governments of the country as the Borno Emirate.
Removal of sectionalism: the Clifford constitution is the fact that it brought sectionalism into the politics of Nigeria. The Richard constitution which immediately followed the Clifford constitution sought to correct this. The constitution therefore sought to promote the unity of Nigeria.
Introduction of federalism: The Richard constitution is credited to have introduced the federal idea into the Nigerian body politics. This is because the constitution made provision for the creation of three regions, each with its Regional Legislative Council. This gave the indication that Nigeria may become a federal state in the future.
More consultative than Clifford constitution: There was more consultation with the Nigerians in the introduction of the Richard constitution. Though this was the case, the Richard constitution is also criticized for not engaging in enough consultation with the broad masses of Nigerians before its promulgation.
The Limited powers of Obas: In my last article about the pre-colonial administration od the Yorubas (west), i explained how the principle of checks and balances control the west.
Education: Education played a significant role in the partial success of the system of indirect rule in the west.
Less submissiveness of the people: Another reason why the system partially succeeded in the West was because, the subjects were not as submissive as their counterparts in the North.This made them not to accept indirect rule blindly.
Religion: Majority of the Yorubas were christians and Christianity is not as conservative as its counterpart in the North-islam.Christians therefore questioned the reasons for the introduction of indirect rule.
. Restoring authority In the Alafin Of Oyo: It is generally believed that the attempt made by lugard to restore authority in Yorubaland to the Alaafin Of Oyo instead of Ooni of Ife contributed immensely to the partial success of indirect rule in the West.
Politicization of the Army;
One of the major reasons for military intervention in Nigeria’s politics in 1966 was the politicization of the Army. Following the independence of Nigeria, almost all the regions in Nigeria seeked to take total control of the military so as to use it as weapon over other regions. The Nigerian army was seriously politicized to the extent that appointments and promotions were based on tribe and political sentiments rather than seniority and merit.
Lack of free and fair election; After Nigeria got independence in 1960 the political system of the country was so damaged that even a free and fair election could not be conducted. In the election that brought Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa as leaders of Nigeria, there was so much corruption and doubt about the result of the election.
Corruption; Apparently, corruption was also a major causative factor for the frequent military intervention in Nigeria in 1966. The military had to take over power because the rate of corruption in Nigeria was becoming unbearable. Nigeria was ranked the most corrupt country in Africa. Politicians became so corrupt and the economy of the country was mismanaged. The wealth of the country was spent recklessly and this encouraged incessant military coups in the country.
Political ambition of the military; I must not forget to mention that the military also intervened in the politics of Nigeria solely because of their political ambition. After independence, the military had the urge to take-over power from civilians, because they thought that they should be the once to rule the country since they have the responsibility to defend the territorial integrity and other core interests of the nation
Recent findings have revealed that students have lost the culture of reading. The reading culture among youths has been said to have waned away. This is unfortunate. In fact, the rate by which, Nigeria recorded failure by Nigerian students in the West African Examination Council WAEC, and National Examination Commission NECO including, other examinations taken in Nigeria is quite glaring that this is true.
My first suggestion on how to go about improving the reading culture among students will be to organize trainings for youths and workshops for students.
There should be series of such training programs for young people in the country on reading culture, and course of study counseling, and Parents Teachers training, including, child development workshops across the country.
For instance, government and corporate organizations and non-governmental organizations should volunteer in hosting students of public secondary schools and students of private secondary schools across Nigeria, for instance, all for the purpose of enlightening the students on the important of imbibing the culture of reading, because this approach will help make these students brilliant and best brains, and subsequently make them responsible citizens in the future, that will contribute outstandingly to nation building.
Another way that I think will improve and promote reading culture in among students will be in the area of students’ debate and students assay competition.
I must tell you that this is one of the key factors that will actually help in achieving an improvement in the area of reading culture among youths and students.
Therefore, there is need to organize inter school debate competition and inter school essay writing competition for both students in public secondary schools and students in private secondary schools across the country.
While organizing for these student competitions, prizes must be given to the best performing students in the competitions, as well as the participating schools.
This gesture will encourage Nigerian students, as well as, their teachers to put more efforts, so that they can stand a chance of winning the prizes next time there is such competition. By so doing, there is all indications that, the reading culture among students will improve.
Again, if free books can be donated to pupils and students in both private primary and secondary schools, as well as public primary and secondary schools it will contribute towards improving reading culture in among students.
That is why it is important and necessary for Nigerian government and other government agencies, including, non-governmental organizations and corporate organizations to take upon themselves the running of campaign programs, where free books can be donated to students in both private primary and secondary schools and public primary and secondary schools.
Good enough, some students particularly, those ones in private schools are privileged to study in environments that have well equipped modern library facilities with books that even promotes reading culture and promote research but unfortunately, students have been carried away by those set of things that do not add value for their studies, for example, Facebook, and WhatsApp, and Twitter, as well as, other social media platforms which have distracts them from studying.
In fact, some of those students, whose parents are wealthy and influential believed that, with their parents wealth disposition, they will sort their way out.
These behaviours and attitudes on the part of students should be discouraged, and they should be redirected to path of being book friendly, as well as imbibing the culture of reading.
Examination malpractice has remained one of the evils that have bewitched Nigerian students, to the extent that, the students have lost the culture of reading, let alone to read and prepare for examination.
In my opinion, I will be suggesting that, there should be campaign and advocacy against examination malpractices. This platform can also serve as a forum, where issues concerning the role of stakeholders in investing their time and resources and energy towards eradicating examination malpractices in Nigeria can be discussed.
It could also serve as platform, where members of the public can be sensitized on how they can collectively work to assist in complimenting the efforts of the government in eradicating examination malpractices in Nigeria, and promote reading culture.
There is need therefore, for Nigerian government to rise up and be committed in making sure that it promote better education philosophy in the country and as well, restore reading culture for the purpose of eradicating the problem of examination malpractices in Nigerian schools.
In April 1993, at a young and irresponsible age, I found out I was pregnant. With much prodding, I reluctantly and regretfully terminated the pregnancy. I struggled with what I had done and went through several years of feeling unbearably guilty. As a Catholic, I went to confession, but after a brief, tearful session, I figured the priest must not have heard me through my sobs because God couldn’t possibly forgive me with a couple of Hail Marys and Our Fathers.
After dealing with several years of depression, I found myself on a different path of self-destructive behavior. I was motivated enough to go to college, but not for all of the right reasons. I did okay at school and attended class regularly, but I partied extensively and dabbled in drugs. Once again, I found myself pregnant. This pregnancy was the motivation I needed to get my act together. I moved home and finished the one class I needed to get an associate’s degree, and I picked up additional classes at the local technical college.
After graduating from college with a couple of two-year degrees and then a bachelor’s degree, I felt like I had my act together. Still, two dates continued to haunt me: April 26th, the day I’d terminated the first pregnancy, and
November 22nd, the day the baby was due.
In July 2005, I got married to a wonderful man who was willing to accept me, my son and all of my baggage. We were fortunate to become pregnant that August, with a due date of May 23rd. We were ecstatic, and two ultrasounds at the beginning of the pregnancy revealed a
healthy, growing baby. It wasn’t until our routine ultrasound in late December that we found out we were having twin boys. They pushed up my due date to the week of April 26th.
I didn’t want to have the babies on that day. I had always vowed that I would think of my unborn baby daily, to somehow repent for what I’d taken away from that child. I felt like I needed to leave April 26th as a day of mourning. It was sacred in my mind.
At a routine checkup on the morning of April 26th, my doctor found that I was five centimeters dilated. It was time to have my babies. As much as I was ready to meet my boys, I choked back tears and confided in her about the irony of the date. She held my hand and offered me different options, but I decided that God had His hand in this, and I needed to do what was intended. Although I am ashamed to admit it, despite the fact that my faith in God is true, I couldn’t get it out of the back of my mind that this was His opportunity to take something away from me as I had done thirteen years ago.
Eleven hours later, I pushed out the first baby—a four-pound, eleven-ounce miracle. We knew the second baby was breech, and the plan was to turn him around and deliver him normally. After the expert medical staff turned him around and all was going as planned, he stuck his arm out in one last attempt to enjoy some space to himself. In their efforts to push his arm back in to deliver his head first, the cord got pinched between his arm and his head. With no vital signs on the delivery room monitors, my mind raced with the penance I must be paying now. Surely, the Hail Marys and Our Fathers had been enough. Surely, the guilt I’d carried with me for thirteen years had signified my repentance.
My second baby was born via emergency C-section, all five pounds, fifteen ounces of healthy baby boy. After a very brief stay in the NICU, the babies were released to our care. For weeks after I had the twins, amidst the feelings of being overwhelmed and ecstatic, I could not help but question why God had not allowed me to keep that day to mourn and remember every year. I swear Prevention is better than cure.
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