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WAEC Civic Education 2023 Answers – Thursday 25th May 2023

WAEC Civic Education Answers 2023: Are you a 2023 Waec candidate searching for 100% verified questions and answers for both objective and essay that will guarantee you A or B in the WAEC Civic Education 2023 examination? look no further, we have all it takes to make you score A in this Waec examination.

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VERIFIED 2023 WAEC CIVIC EDUCATION ANSWERS BELOW:

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CIVIC EDUCATION OBJ

1-10: ACCABADDCD
11-20: CADBADABCD
21-30: DADADCCADB
31-40: AADDACCDBB
41-50: BDCBCDDAAD

COMPLETED!!!

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CIVIC EDUCATION ESSAY

NUMBER 1

(1a)
(i)Values help to determine and control the behavior of individuals in the society.
(ii)They act as criteria or measures for the judgment of the actions of individuals in the society.
(iii)They give focus and direction to individuals in the family and society at large.
(iv)They help us in decision-making.
(v)They modify our attitudes and feelings toward other people through tolerance of different opinions and behavior.

(1b)
(i)Nationhood and identity: Citizenship education helps individuals develop a sense of national identity, fostering a shared understanding of values, history, and cultural heritage. It strengthens the bond between citizens and their nation.

(ii)Active citizenship: Civic education empowers individuals to actively participate in civic life, including community development projects, volunteer work, and public service. It encourages citizens to take ownership of their communities and contribute to their improvement.

(iii)Democratic governance: Citizenship education promotes an understanding of democratic principles, processes, and institutions. It equips individuals with knowledge about their rights and responsibilities as citizens, preparing them to engage in democratic decision-making and hold elected representatives accountable.

(iv)Social responsibility: Civic education instills a sense of social responsibility, emphasizing the importance of contributing positively to society. It encourages citizens to be aware of societal issues, such as poverty, inequality.

(v)Peaceful coexistence: Citizenship education promotes respect, understanding, and dialogue among individuals from different backgrounds. It equips citizens with skills to resolve conflicts peacefully.

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NUMBER 3

(3a) Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions, connections, and bonds between different communities or ethnic groups within a specific geographical area. It involves the social, cultural, economic, and political interactions that occur among individuals, families, organizations, and institutions from different communities.

(3b) Inter-communal relationships promote community development in Nigeria in several ways:

i. Cultural Exchange and Diversity: Inter-communal relationships provide opportunities for cultural exchange and appreciation. When different communities interact, they share their customs, traditions, languages, arts, and values. This exchange of cultural knowledge and experiences enriches the diversity of Nigerian communities and promotes mutual understanding and tolerance.

ii. Peace and Conflict Resolution: Effective inter-communal relationships contribute to peaceful coexistence and conflict resolution. When communities establish open lines of communication and engage in dialogue, it becomes easier to address misunderstandings, resolve disputes, and prevent conflicts from escalating. Promoting peaceful interactions helps to maintain stability and fosters an environment conducive to development.

iii. Economic Collaboration: Inter-communal relationships can enhance economic development in Nigeria. Communities that collaborate and engage in trade, business partnerships, and resource sharing create economic opportunities and increase productivity. Cooperation among communities can lead to the development of industries, infrastructure, and markets, thereby boosting local economies and improving the living standards of the people.

iv. Social Integration and Unity: Inter-communal relationships foster social integration and unity among diverse groups. When different communities interact positively, stereotypes and prejudices can be challenged and overcome. By promoting inclusivity and a sense of belonging, inter-communal relationships create a unified society where people work together towards common goals, such as education, healthcare, and community development projects.

v. Political Engagement and Representation: Strong inter-communal relationships encourage active political engagement and representation. When communities collaborate, they can collectively advocate for their needs, interests, and rights. This inclusivity helps to ensure that diverse voices are heard in the decision-making processes at various levels of government. It promotes equitable distribution of resources, social justice, and good governance.

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NUMBER 6

(6a)
(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.
(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.
(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.
(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.
(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people.
(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values.

(6b)
(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

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NUMBER 7

(PICK ANY FIVE)

(i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives. They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.

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Waec Civic Education Answers 2023

Thursday, 25th May, 2023

  • Civic Education 2 (Essay) ** – 09:30am – 11:30am
  • Civic Education 1 (Objective) ** – 11:30am – 12:30pm

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Past Civic Education Answers

CIVIC EDUCATION OBJ

1-10: EADABDBDCB

11-20: EAACACCCCE

21-30: DCACDBBEDA

31-40: BACEDDBBDD

41-50: ADCDBCBBBD

51-60: BECBCCBBCD

Completed.

THEORY

INSTRUCTIONS: ANSWER FOUR QUESTION IN ALL, TWO FOR EACH SECTION

QUESTION 1

(i)Decorum: Decorum is simply the to as requirement of correct behavior in polite society. It is the right behavior expected at a particular situation..Example is perfect silence among the students when the principal is speaking.

(ii)Obeying traffic rules and regulation: It is important for every road users to obey the traffic rules and regulation while driving and there is need for proper understanding proper understanding of the traffic rules and regulation.

(iii)Queuing culture: Queuing is an important way to maintain orderliness in the society. There may be need for us to queue up at some places where many people want to enjoy same services with us. This will help in letting things go in a well orderly manner. Examples of where queuing may be needed are petrol stations, ATM points, banks etc.

(iv)Listening skills: Good listening skills help us to avoid misunderstanding, embarrassment and mistakes. there is need to be attentive to ever information. Orderliness involves paying attention while others speak.

(v)Driving skills: Driving skills is needed before driving, it is important to go through the normal driving school process before prescribed by the authority concerned before making any attempt to drive.We demonstrate orderliness in driving by observing the traffic light and traffic regulations.

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QUESTION 2

(2)
(i) Love: An interpersonal relationship characterized by passion, intimacy, trust and respect is called love. Individuals in a romantic relationship are deeply attached to each other and share a special bond.

(ii) Friendship: Friendship is an unconditional interpersonal relationship where individuals enter into by their own sweet will and choice. Friendship is a relationship where there are no formalities and individuals enjoy each other’s presence.

(iii) Platonic Relationship: A relationship between two individuals without any feelings or sexual desire for each other is called a platonic relationship. In such a relationship, a man and a woman are just friends and do not mix love with friendship.

(iv) Platonic relationships might end in romantic relationship with both the partners developing mutual love and falling for each other. Family Relationship Individuals related by blood or marriage are said to form a family.

(v) Professional Relationship (Work Relationship): Individuals working together for the same organization are said to share a professional relationship. Individuals sharing a professional relationship are called colleagues. Colleagues may or may not like each other

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QUESTION 3

(3)
(i) Encouraging citizen participation in Government: The quality of service rendered by public services will be much better if citizens participated in governance and have platforms on which to express grievances and give feedback. This participatory governance helps to encourage accountability because it puts members and managers of public enterprises on their toes.

(ii) Reformation of code of bureau: The Code of Conduct Bureau is empowered by the constitution to support the Federal Government in curtailing unethical conduct, abuse of office, and other forms of corruption in the public service. Reforming the public service ensures that agencies are completely independent and free from political interference so that the provisions of the Code of Conduct can be enforced and corruption checked.

(iii) Improved salaries: Public servants are the least motivated to work because of their low salary and remuneration package. The government needs to review the salaries of public servants. When public servants are paid what is complementary to the cost of living, they will show more passion for their work which will result in improved services.

(iv) Use of technology in the public service: Public sector in Nigeria still makes use of traditional ways of performing its functions. It is very difficult for the public sector to catch up with standards in a fast-paced technological world. The government needs to invest in Information and technological tools to improve the quality of services.

(v) Human capital development and training: The inefficiency of public servants in Nigeria can be traced to a lack of training and poor human development and management. The government should also invest in good quality education from the school system.

QUESTION 5

(5a)
Civic duty refers to the actions that all individuals must take in order to be citizens of a country. Each country has its own specific requirements for civic duty, meaning that the concepts applicable in one part of the world may not be universal.

(5b)
(i)Paying of taxes; An important duty of any citizen in any country is to pay taxes to the state. Tax is a compulsory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits, or added to the cost of some goods, services, and transactions.

(ii)Obeying the laws of the state; Law and order is a prerequisite of every society. To ensure that there is law and order therefore, every citizen must obey the laws of the land. Citizens are expected to respect and obey federal, state, and local laws.

(iii)Participating in the political process; Citizens are expected to participate in the political process of the state. The citizen is expected to vote and can also be voted for if he or she vies for a political office. Citizens are expected to be active in the democratic process.

(iv)Protection of public property; Every citizen has the responsibility to protect state property. A lot of tax money is spent by governments to create public properties for the state. As such, it is expected of citizens to take care of these properties.

QUESTION 6

(6i)
Selflessness is the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others; the quality of not putting yourself first but being willing to give your time or money or effort for others.

(6ii)
Integrity can be seen as the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles. It is also the quality of being upright, not corrupt, but inspiring and fair in actions.

(6iii) Contentment is a state of being satisfied with one’s life and with what one has. Someone is said to be content if he/she is not always feeling like having everything to himself alone.

QUESTION 8

(8)

FUNCTIONS OF EXECUTIVE
[Pick Any five]

(i) protects the country against external attack
(ii) execute and implement the law
(iii) prepares annual budget
(iv) Enforce law in the state
(v) Appointment of ministers, high commissioners and ambassadors
(vi) signing of bill into law.

FUNCTIONS OF LEGISLATURE
[Pick Any five]

(i) It makes law
(ii) it approves budget
(iii) Executive watchdog
(iv) It approves judiciary appointment
(v) it represents the citizens in government.
(vi) it approves executive appointments.

FUNCTIONS OF JUDICIARY
[Pick Any five]

(i) it interpreters the law
(ii) it settles disputes
(iii) it punishes offenders
(iv) It contributes to law making
(v) it safeguards fundamental individual right.
(vi) it functions as watch dog to other organs of government.

CIVIC EDUCATION

  1. DBCCCABADA
  2. BCCCBCBBCA
  3. ABDACCBBBB
  4. CACADCCDCC
  5. CCDBACADAC


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(1a)
Human rights simply means the absolute natural rights and privileges enjoyed by the citizens of any given state which are usually outlined by the constitution of the state.

(1b)
(i) Being detained by law for an offence committed
(ii) During wars, a person’s right can be violated
(iii) During a curfew
(iv) When a citizen has a contagious or an infectious disease.


(1c)
(i) To guarantee the liberty of citizens: It guarantees a total safeguard of human right, peace and unity in the society as the constitution is a body of laws and principles through which a state is ruled

(ii) To make sure the rights of citizens are not violated: Laws that are not written in the constitution are unknown to law, they cannot be exercised or sanctioned when violated.

(iii) To punish violators: The written form of human right gives room for a provision of a section for punishment of an offender or someone who infringed on someone’s right.
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(2a)
(i)Express Love and Affection.
(ii)Communicate Effectively.
(iii)Manage Your Own Stress.
(iv)Maintain a Good Relationship With Your Child’s Other Parent.
(v)Teach Responsibility.

(2b)
(i)Reduction In Crime
(ii)Responsible Citizens
(iii)Harmonious Co-existence in Home
(iv)Disciplined Society
(v)Obedient Students, Youths And Staff
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(4a)
– Breakdown of law and order.
– Violence and social instability.
– Disruption of academic activities.
– Disorientation of societal values.
– Premature death of youths who are cult members/innocent victims.

(4b)
– Parents should pay more attention to their children’s upbringing and educate
them properly on acceptable standards of behaviour.
– Students should be encouraged to join religious groups and develop the fear of God because the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.
– Students should be encouraged to workol hard in school.
– Parents should show good examples to their children.
– The teaching and learning environment should be conducive.

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*5a.* 1 Fear of contacting hiv from them.

2. The judgemental part of thinking people who have hiv contacted it through immoralities.

3. Lack of enlightenment on how hiv works.

4. Outdated beliefs of some people concerning the disease.

5. The dreaded nature and assumptions of the disease

*NUMBER 5b*

1. Inability of the patients to work owing to the illness can lead to dearth of human resources.

2. The dependents on the patients will suffer poverty and loss of goals.

3. The production life of the society will dwindle.

4. Good number of investable capital will be wasted of taking care of the sickness.

5. More people will be in danger of being exposed to the sickness owing to it’s spread which will underpopulate such society

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(7a)
Political party is defined as organised group of citizens, who act together as a political unit having distinctive aims and objectives involving political questions in the state and acting together and seeking to obtain control of government.

(7b)
– Secret balloting
– Counting of votes
– Division into constituencies
– Preparation of voters register
– Initidation of voters
– Opportunity to campaigns

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(6a)
(i)Provisions of higher education
(ii)Provisions of technical and vocational education
(iii)Provisions of special scholarship program
(iv)Increase budgetary allocation for education
(v)Making grant available for business development

(6b)
(i)To promote national unity
(ii)To inculcate the discipline and spirit of patriotism in the youth for national development
(iii)To contribute to the accelerated growth of the national economy
(iv)To live and work in any part of Nigeria
(v)To make skills available to areas of need in any part of Nigeria


(8a)
Pro-democracy demonstration definition: A demonstration is a march or gathering which people take part in to show their.

(8b)
labor group is an organization that engages in collective bargaining with an employer to protect workers’ .

(8c)
Professional group is an association that is formed to further the interests of people engaged in a specific profession

(8d)
Religious groups bring people together for regular ritual interactions, and these interactions take place in defined settings controlled by religious movements

(8e)
Student Group means a number of persons who are associated with a school and each other, but who have not registered
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(9)
(i)Negative or poor attitude to work: Civil servants are known to display poor attitude to work due to inadequate salaries, poor working conditions and absence of job security.

(ii) Bureaucracy: Civil servants follow precedents and adhere strictly to official rules when carrying out decisions and policies of government.

(iii)Political instability:
Continuous change of government brings along a change of political appointees like ministers, commissioners and career top civil servants such as the head of service and sometimes the directors-general.

(iv)Political interference: The intervention of the government in the day-to-day administration of the civil service does not give the civil servants the necessary freedom to carry out government policies effectively.

(v)Duplication of offices and position: The civil service is often criticized for wasting financial and manpower resources, and retaining unproductive workers with the creation of ministries, departments and positions with similar functions.

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CIVIC OBJ
1BCDDCDCBCA
11AACCCACDAA
21CDBDACCCAA
31ABBCABBCBD
41DBDABDCCDD
Completed

(4a)
A secret cult group is referred to as a dangerous and deadly group that share common ideologies, believe in secret, esoteric, mystic and engage in violent practices.

(4b)
(i)Public campaign against cultism: Different organizations, including the government, schools, religious institutions, and parents, should promote awareness against cultism. Seminars and workshops should be organized to discuss the dangers of cultism all over schools without leaving out the primary schools.

(ii)Government Standard: The government should also make laws to punish cultists for pushing away students and young people from joining these groups. The political leaders supporting them should also be put to judgment because they are damaging other children’s lives to make theirs better;

(iii)Discipline and Studying hard in school to achieve success: Students should be kept busy and engage in school via curricular and extra curricular activities. Because it is a known fact that an “idle mind is the devil’s workshop”. When students are engage with hard work, they will not have time to join cult.

(iv)Moral Education should be made compulsory in the primary and secondary schools in the country.
Parents should take time to understand their children, give enough time to listen to them at home and satisfy their emotional psychological and physical needs.
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(2a)
(i) Right to life, Liberty and security of the person
(ii) Right to non-discrimination equality before the law and equal protection by the law
(iii) Right to the freedom of movement and to choose a residence
(iv) Right to freedom of force labour, slavery, slavery-like practices and servitude
(v) Right to freedom and of thought, conscience and religion
(vi) The right to peaceful assembly and freedom of association
(vii) Right to freedom of opinion and expression

(2b)
(i) Giving financial support to human rights abuse victims
(ii) Individuals are expected to become conscious their right as citizens and be ready to claim it.
(iii) Joining human rights groups to promote respect for all human rights
(iv) Willingness to report cases of human rights abuse to necessary authorities
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(9a)
(i)It advices in the formulation of the policies of government.
(ii)It implements government policies.
(iii)It advises the government.
(iv)It creates employment opportunities.
(v)It performs delegated /legislative functions.

(9b)
(i) Poor remuneration: A hungry man is an angry man. The civil service are poorly remunerated which causes them to take bribe. The salary they receive is not even enough for them to pay their children’s school fees. They are not well motivated

(ii) Absence of skilled manpower: Lack of skilled manpower in the civil service causes inefficiency in the civil service. Therefore, any organization that lacks adequate skilled personnel in their organization, will find it difficult carrying out their operations effectively and efficiently.

(iii) Poor human resources management: Human resources management recruits and train workers to work in the organization. But when the organization cannot manage their workers, the workers tend to leave the organization. Poor management of workers causes death of an organization

(iv) Inadequate materials or insufficient materials: Lack of materials for work causes inefficiency in the operations of the civil service. Government failures to provide those necessary materials that can facilitate work in offices contribute to the cause of ineffectiveness in civil service.

(v) Corruption: Corruption has eaten deep into the bones of our civil service, it hard to find a civil servant without the intent to defraud. When corruption continues to thrive in the civil service, it affects the general operations of the civil service.
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(8a)
Modern mode of popular participation is the mode of popular participation carried out through expressing of oneself through the mass media.

(8b)
(i) Legitimacy of elected governments: If citizens actively participate in electoral process, society will have an elected legitimate government.
(ii) National development: There will be rapid socio-economic development if citizens participate in the electoral or political process.
(iii) Political stability: This ensures law and order for economic and political development in the society.
(iv) Responsible and responsive government: The society will elect or get a government that is receptive to the people’s concerns, needs and aspirations.
(v) Political awareness: When citizens participate in the electoral/political process, they will become politically conscious, enjoy their rights and perform corresponding duties and obligations to the society.
(vi) Credible elections: When citizens actively participate in the electoral or political process it will confer credibility on the process.
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(7i)
Political Parties: these are organized groups of people who share common ideas with the sole aim of contesting elections to gain/assume political power in a democratic state.

(7ii)
Free and independent Press: this refers to a situation or condition in which media organizations are allowed to perform their functions of informing, educating, entertaining people and scrutinizing government activities without undue censorship for the purpose of good governance in a democracy.

(7iii)
Civil Societies organization: these are private non-profit organizations formed to promote collectively shared values, interests and objectives that are capable of enhancing the general welfare and development of democratic states.
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(6a)
Youth Empowerment: A development programme aimed at creating opportunities that will encourage and develop the youths to be morally responsible, self-reliant and financially productive citizens.

(6b)
(i) Life Coping Skills: These are natural skills which every organism including man, acquires from birth to adapt fittingly in his or its environment. They are survival Instincts or skills.

(ii) Manipulative Skills: These skills are seen in skills acquisition centres as it involves economic activities that inculcate skills such as technical education.

(iii) Intellectual Skills: These skills are coordinates in character. It is the literary or theoretical frameworks that guide the practical aspects of the works, economic and scientific undertakings

(iv) Communicative Skills: Communication is a very important aspect of our life. Man evolved communications skills as a social being to enable him pass or send information from one person to the other or from place to place.

(v) Artistic Skills: These are close to communicative skills and are more complex. Includes they art of good writing, fine and applied arts, music and drama. These skills make effective use of all the other four kinds of skills where necessary.

(vi)Decision-making skills; These can be the difference in making a choice that improves your organization. The aptitude to make decisions is a leadership trait, which portrays your ability to think objectively and relates concepts to the goals you’re trying to reach.

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CIVIC-EDUCATION-THEORY
(6)
(i) Maintain social distancing. Work from home if possible and avoid large gatherings, public spaces and public transportation:
Keep three to six feet between yourself and others. Avoid social touching, this includes shaking hands, kissing or hugging, instead try a hand wave or a smile.

(ii) Clean “high-touch” surfaces regularly: It’s still unknown if COVID-19 can spread from hard surfaces to people or how long it may live outside the human body, Take extra caution and clean high-touch surfaces like tables, doorknobs, light switches, desks, toilets, faucets, and sinks with household disinfectants that are appropriate for the surface.

(iii) Stop sharing. Even though you may usually steal a bite from your kid’s plate or share a dessert with a friend or spouse, now is the time to be selfish with your food, Don’t share any common kitchen objects such as dishes, drinking glasses, utensils, cups, and, of course, food with anyone—even the people in your home.

(iv) Prepare for your needs in case you’ll need to stay home for an extended period: Make sure you have enough groceries, household items and medications (including over-the-counter medicines) on hand, and that you know how to order more either online or by making a phone call.

(v) Wear a mask or cloth face covering.
A cloth face covering may not protect the wearer, but it may keep the wearer from spreading the virus to others. To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
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(1a)
Civic education is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties.

(1b)
(i) Peace and Equality: Civic education teaches us to respect each other’s belief and see each other as brothers or equal. One sad reoccurrence in our society today is ethnicity and religious superiority.

(ii) Patriotism: Through Civic education, we as citizens begin to feel love, devotion and attachment to our country. Obeying the laws of the land, promoting good values, shunning vices and active participation in the governance of the nation

(iii) Sustainable Development: The curriculum of Civic education is structured to address the goals of sustainable development which are summed up into social justice, ecological sustainability, good governance and economic productivity.

(1c)
(i) Home
(ii) School
(iii) Peer-group
(iv) Mass media
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(7)
(i) Law Making
(ii)Control over the Budget
(iii) Judicial
(iv) Amendment of the Constitution
(v) Control over Executive

-Explanation-
(i) Law Making: In modern times the most important function of legislature is law making. Ordinary Bills can be introduced by the members of the Parliament and by the Ministers, while Money Bills can be introduced only by the Ministers in the Lower House.

(ii)Control over the Budget: The legislature has control over the budget of the executive (Government) and without its approval the executive cannot spend even a single ‘paisa’. In England and India, the Members of the Parliament can impose a cut on any demand on the budget but they cannot increase it.

(iii) Judicial: In certain countries the legislature has to perform certain judicial functions. For example, in India and America the Parliament and the Congress can remove the President by a process of Impeachment.

(iv) Amendment of the Constitution: In every democracy, the power to amend the constitution rests with the legislature of that country. The only difference is that in some countries, a similar procedure is adopted as that for the amendment of ordinary laws.

(v) Control over Executive: In a Parliamentary Government the Legislature or the Parliament exercises full control over the executive or the Council of Ministers. The Parliament has the right to put Questions and Supplementary Questions to the Cabinet.
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(2a)
Cultism is a form of organization whose activities are not only exclusively kept away from the knowledge of others but such activities are carried out at odd hours of the day and they often clash with the accepted norms and values of everyday life.

(2b)
(i) The overwhelming influence of peer pressures.
(ii) The parental background, if my dad or mom was in a cult, I will likely join one.
(iii) Society decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, honor and discipline.
(iv) Fallen standard of education.

(2c)
(i) Breakdown of law and order.
(ii)Violence and social instability.
(iii) Disruption of academic activities.
(iv) Disorientation of societal values.
(v) Premature death of youths who are cult members/innocent victims.
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(5)
(i) Right To Life.
(ii) Right To freedom Of Expression.
(iii) Right To Fair and equal hearing.
(iv) Right to freedom of movement.
(v) Right to own property.

Explanation.
(i) Right To Life: This right you to live or to exist. Nobody has the right to kill another person or himself or herself.

(ii) Right To freedom Of Expression: Under this right, everyone is free to hold opinions, express same or receive or impart ideas and information without interference. This is the right to say whatever one wants to say. The press I.e Newspapers e.t.c. have the right to say or report any news without being harassed or forced not to do so.

(iii) Right To Fair and equal hearing: Every Citizen has the right to be listened to before they are punished. Even it a thief is caught stealing the court has to listen to his or her defence before dispensing judgment.

(iv) Right to freedom of movement: Every citizen of Nigeria is free to move from one part to the other and to reside in any part of the country. No citizen of Nigeria must be denied entry into and movement out of Nigeria.

(v)Right to own property: Every person is entitled to own private property and no moveable or immovable property or the interest from it can be compulsory acquired in any part of Nigeria.
Conclusively, in a particular case where private interest with the public interest in a particular property, the public interest prevails because it is for public use.
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Completed!.

Conclusion

Waec Civic Education Answers 2023 for 25th May 2023 (Objective and Essay)

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