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Waec Agricultural Science Answers 2023 for Thursday 18th May 2023 (Objective and Essay)

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WAEC Agricultural Science Answers 2023

Credit is a situation whereby sellers allow buyers to take possession of goods and services and pay later while subsidy is a situation whereby part of the money a buyer is meant to pay for good is paid for by the government

(i) Fertilizer
(ii) Seeds
(iii) Manure
(iv) Machines
(v) Labour

(i) Paint the body of the tractor
(ii) The old fan belt must be replaced with a new one
(iii) All the movable parts must be lubricated to reduce friction
(iv) Adjust the break when necessary
(v) Replace oil filter with the new one

(i) Do not over use
(ii) Ensure it is operated by a skilled personnel
(iii) Ensure it is properly serviced
(iv) Always check the water level eg tractor
(v) Ensure proper routine check


Complete agricultural science
Agricultural ecology, also known as agroecology, is a field of study that focuses on the ecological principles and practices of agriculture.

Soil composition
Water availability

a.Clean and Prepare the Storage Area
b. Check Moisture Levels
c. Protect from Pests: Maize is vulnerable to pest infestations, such as weevils, moths, or rodents.
d. Maintain Adequate Ventilation
e. Practice First-In, First-Out (FIFO): Implement a “first-in, first-out” system when accessing the stored maize

a. Petunia (Petunia spp.)
b. Marigold (Tagetes spp.)
c. Geranium (Pelargonium spp.)
d. Begonia (Begonia spp.)Complete agricultural science



(i) Causal organism: Root knot disease of tomato is caused by Meloidogyne spp. (nematode) both in soil and water, they infect the roots causing deformation.

(ii) Mode of transmission: The disease is transmitted through soil, water, weeds, farm equipment, and farm labourers.

(iii) Two symptoms: The symptoms of root knot disease include:

  1. Galled root system: The infected root of a tomato plant typically becomes swollen and develops numerous small knots or galls on its surface and soil attached to the root which turns yellow.
  2. Stunted growth: Infected tomato plants may become stunted and lack vigour and produce fewer flowers and fruit.

(iv) Two prevention and control measures:

  1. Plant resistant varieties: Planting resistant tomato varieties which are not susceptible to nematodes, can be effective in preventing an outbreak of root knot disease.
  2. Crop rotation:Crop rotation with non-host plants which are not susceptible to nematode attacks, for example, cereals, grasses, and legumes, can reduce the infestation of nematodes and lead to a significant decrease in nematode populations.


(i) Fertilizer application:

  1. Soil acidification: Overuse of chemical fertilizers can lead to soil acidification, causing pH to drop below optimal levels for plant growth.
  2. Nutrient imbalances: Overuse of chemical fertilizers can also lead to nutrients imbalances, for example, excessive use of nitrogen can affect soil organic matter, mineral content and ultimately crop productivity.
  3. Environmental pollution: Excessive use of fertilizers can lead to the accumulation of nitrates in the soil and groundwater, resulting in environmental pollution.

(ii) Clean clearing:

  1. Soil erosion: Removing vegetation from the soil surface can increase soil erosion due to water and wind.
  2. Nutrient depletion: Clearing land without adequate measures can remove the nutrient-rich topsoil, which leads to nutrient depletion and soil degradation.
  3. Habitat loss: Clearing land can result in habitat loss for various species of wildlife and plants.

(iii) Overgrazing:

  1. Soil compaction: Excessive grazing can lead to soil compaction, which reduces infiltration rates and water-holding capacity, affecting soil quality and crop productivity.
  2. Soil erosion and nutrient depletion: Overgrazing can lead to soil erosion, loss of topsoil, loss of vegetation cover, and reduced nutrient cycling, leading to nutrient depletion and decreased productivity.
  3. Biodiversity loss: Overgrazing can also result in the loss of habitat for many species of plants and animals and can consequently lead to a decrease in biodiversity.


Three agricultural uses of land include:

  1. Crop production: Land is used to grow a wide range of crops, including grains, vegetables, fruits.
  2. Animal husbandry: Land is also used for rearing livestock, including cattle, goats, and sheep.
  3. Forestry: Land is also used for the cultivation of trees for timber production and other forest products.


a.Preparation of Planting Site
b. Stem Cutting Selection and Preparation
c. Planting the Stem Cuttings
d. Watering and Mulching

a. Food Consumption
b. Animal Feed
c. Industrial Applications


Expected number of yam plants = Number of planting spots per hectare * Total area of the farmland
Expected number of yam plants = 10,000 * 1.5 = 15,000
Therefore, the expected number of yam plants on the 1.5 hectares of farmland would be 15,000 plants.


Total weight = Expected number of yam plants * Average weight of each yam tuber
Total weight = 15,000 * 3.5 kg = 52,500 kg
Therefore, the total weight of the yam tubers harvested on the 1.5 hectares of farmland would be 52,500 kilograms (or 52.5 metric tons).


diet refers to the overall composition and combination of feeds and ingredients that an animal consumes over a certain period. It encompasses the entire range of foods and nutrients consumed by the animal WHILE A ration, on the other hand, is a specific amount or quantity of feed that is provided to an animal during a single feeding event or within a specific time period, typically a day.


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Waec Agricultural Science Answers 2023

Thursday, 18th May, 2023

  • Agricultural Science 2 (Essay) – 2:00pm – 4:10pm
  • Agricultural Science 1 (Objective) – 4:10pm – 5:00pm

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Past Agricultural Science Answers

(i) Implements and Machinery.
(ii) Transport Network.
(iii) Animal and Plant Breeding.
(iv) Provision of Storage Facilities.
(v) Development of Fertilizers.
(vi) Development of Farm Management System.

(i) Tax Advantages.
(ii) Cash Flow Opportunities.
(iii) Equity Appreciation.
(iv) Favorable Financing Rates.

(i) Plough.
(ii) Harrows.
(iii) Ridgers.
(iv) Planters.
(v) Cultivators.

(iv) Aquaculture is the act of rearing selected species of fish, shrimps, crabs e.t.c under scientific-controlled conditions in closed bodies of water such as ponds, streams and rivers where they feed, grow, breed and are harvested for consumption or for sale.


Maize requires a temperature of 26°C – 30°C, rainfall of between 75cm – 150cm per annum and a well drained sandy loamy soil of pH 6-7.

Maize is propagated by seeds. The maize seed can be planted manually by stuck or cutlass, or mechanically by planter.

Early maize is planted between March/April and Late maize is July/August. Maize (early or late) is also planted depending on location and rainfall.

The Quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land is 25kg – 30kg/hectare; two to three seeds are also recommended per hole. Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or plant population desired.

(i) Hand Harvesting.
(ii) Harvesting with hand Tools such as sickle.
(iii) Harvesting with Machinery such as corn picker or harvester.

Dried Maize cobs can be stored either in cribs, rhumbus or in a fireplace, on a small scale or in a silos, on a large scale.

(i) Cultural Control: This involves the use of Crop Rotation, resistant varieties, tillage practices, regular weeding, fallowing timeliness of planting e.t.c to control or prevent disease.
(ii) Biological Control: This involves the use of natural enemies of diseases to reduce or totally eliminate the diseases.
(iii) Chemical Control: This involves the use of chemicals such as fungicides, nematicides and incesticides to dust or spray plant materials in order to prevent or control plant diseases.
(iv) Plant Quarantine: This involves the legal restriction on the movement of agricultural commodities for the purpose of exclusion, prevention or delay in the establishment of plant diseases in areas where they are not known to occur.
(v) Physical Control: This Involves the physical removal of infected crop or plant.


(i) Progeny Selection: This are animals that are selected on the performance of their progeny or offspring. Mothers of the the best performing are retained while the mothers of offspring that do not perform well are discarded.
(ii) Pedigree Selection: Animals are selected or rejected on the basics of performance of their ancestors. This selection is based on the belief that ancestors have passed on their traits to the animals being considered and so the animal is likely to perform equally or even better than the ancestors.
(iii) Inbreeding: This involves the mating of more closely related animals than the average of the population from which they come, e.g. the mating of father to daughter, son to mother or brother to sister.
(iv) Outbreeding: This is the mating of unrelated individual animals within the same breed.

(i) There is lack of land because it requires large area and therefore not good for commercial purposes.
(ii) When badly managed, it may result in the accumulation of germs and parasites.
(iii) It exposes the birds to extreme weather conditions.

(i) Capon: A Capon is a castrated male fowl.
(ii) Broiler: A Broiler is a fowl reared for meat.



(i) Farm Diary: This is the record of daily activities on the farm. It is also a record of events about the farm. It servers as a good reference book to obtain information about the farm.
(ii) Annual Valuation: Farm Managers should keep statements of the value of stocks at the beginning and end of the year.
(iii) Yield or Production Record: This shows the yields of crops cultivated on the farm, it also shows the produce from livestock or poultry, it helps in variety selection.
(iv) Payroll Or Labour Record: It shows the amount (number) and types (specialization) of labour hired or employed to work on the farm. It also shows the rate and wages paid. It helps in profit and loss account.

Selective Exploitation: Is the cutting of matured trees leaving the young ones to continue growing to avoid destructive effects of both wind and water erosion.


Apiculture is the maintenance of honeybee colonies, commonly in hives, by human for the purpose of producing honey and wax.
Apiculture or Bee-keeping is the art and science of domesticated bees (insects) for the production of products such as honey and wax.

(i) Location of apiaries far from human dwelling.
(ii) Putting warning symbols near apiaries.
(iii) Wearing of protective clothing.
(iv) Use of smokers: smoke calms bees, it initiate a feeding response in anticipation of possible hive abandoned due to fire.
(v) Keep Bee Colonies where abundant source of Water, Pollen and Nectar is available.
(vi) Regularly clean the bottom board of Bee box (Hive) and maintain colony hygiene.

(i) Close Season: This regulation in which no fishing I permitted to take place for a given period of time
(ii) Population Control: This involves the use of other fish types clarias (catfish) to eat up tilapia or early harvesting to prevent over-population.
(iii) Landing Tax: Landing tax should be introduced such that total catch and sizes of fish should be taxed at the site of landing.
(iv) Restriction on breeding section: The breeding section of water should be identified so as to restricted fishing in that section.
(v) Prohibition of Dumping Toxic Materials: The dumbing of toxic materials or industrial wastes should be prohibited in fishing areas or water.
(vi) Catch Quota: This is a form of control in which a fisherman is allowed to catch a specific quantity of fish or regulating the number of fishermen by issuing them fishing permits or licenses at a specific amount.

Crop improvement is defined as the science that deals with the development of new crop varieties with superior quality and quantity.
Crop Improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding of crop varieties which are better than the existing varieties in a number of characters.

Number One

(i) Government should erect as many market infrastructures as possible
(ii) Government should stabilize prices of farm produce in the county.

(i) Storage facilities should be provided by the government at subsidized rates.
(ii) Provision of storage chemicals such as fumigants.

(i) Construction of new feeder roads to open up the rural areas.
(ii) Construction of water ways to link up the riverine areas.

(i) Rural farmers should be trained on modern system of farming.
(ii) Mass literacy programme should be embarrassed upon by the government. E.g. Nomadic education.

(i) Flooding should be avoided.
(ii) Terracing and strip cropping should also br practiced.

(i) Determination of size of farmland: Farm survey helps to determine the size or hecterage of farmland.
(ii) For Feasibility Studies: Farm survey is also important or useful for the preparation of feasibility studies.
(iii) Proper Use Of Farmland: Farm survey enables farmers to make proper use of land.
(iv) Planning Of Farmstead: Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farmstead.

(i) Creating a crumbly layer for planting
(ii) Protects the soil surface from rapid drying
(iii) Improves both the air and water penetrability into the soil
(iv) Improves nutrient availability to plants.

Number 2

(i)Broadcasting and band placement
(ii)Ring method and side dressing/Row placement
(iii)Foliar application and fertigation/Application through irrigation method
(iv)Plough-sole method and top dressing

Alley cropping
This involves planting of leguminous trees that are wide apart as to allow the growing
of strips of arable crops within the rows of trees. WHILE Ley farming
This is the practice of alternating arable crop production with the growing of forage
crops at different periods of time on a piece of land.

(i)General Provisions
(ii)Constitution of Forest Reserves and Declaration of Protected Forests
(iii)Administration of Forest Reserves and Protected Forest
(iv)Local Government Plantations and Forest Reserves

(i) manual sprinkling e.g. hand, brooms, brush.
(ii) Use of watering can and drip irrigation
(iii) Channel irrigation and sprinkler irrigation.

Number 3

Macronutrients are the nutrients your body needs in larger amounts, namely carbohydrates, protein, and fat. These provide your body with energy, or calories. WHILE Micronutrients are the nutrients your body needs in smaller amounts, which are commonly referred to as vitamins and minerals.

(i)zinc (Zn)
(ii)manganese (Mn)
(iii) copper (Cu)

-Advantage vegetative propagation-
(i)Plants that are propagated vegetatively are exactly like their parents they are true to type
(ii)Plants established by vegetative means usually grow faster, and mature earlier than those established from seed
(iii)Seed dormancy problems are completely eliminated in vegetative propagation

-Disadvantage vegetative propagation-
(i)The processes involved are time consuming
(ii)There is possibility of the transmission of diseases in vegetative materials
(iii)The planting material is usually bulky


Number 4

-Dig the silage pit
-Cut the fresh grass/forage before flowering
-Wilt for few hours/day
-Collect the wilted forage and lay it at the bottom of the pit to a reasonable level
-Add ash/urea sprinkled on it
-Compress and add another layer of wilted forage, compress and add further ash/urea-fertilizer
-Add more wilted forage, ash/urea and compress until pit is filled
-Finally compress and then cover with tarpaulin or plastic polythene sheet
-Leave to ferment with minimum of 2 – 4 weeks

(ii)Chamaecyparis obtusa
(iii)Sida acuta
(iv)Talinum fruticosum

(i)earing disease-resistant stock
(ii)carrying out rotational grazing
(iii)feeding balanced ration
(iv)vaccinate their animals if possible and necessary.
(v)Segregate sick animals and call a veterinarian for advice.

(i)rodents like giant rats
(ii)grass cutter.
(iii) nematodes and birds.

Number 6

Depreciation: (i) refers to the reduction in the value or performance of an asset, e.g. a farm machinery.

Farm inventory: (i) refers to the records of all the assets and liabilities of a farm, Examples of assets are cash at hand, land and landed properties, machinery, crops and livestock.

balance sheet; (i)is a financial statement which shows the assets, liabilities and net worth of a farm at a point time. e;g; loan, record.

(i)Originality in thought, word and action
(ii)He must be a good listener
(iii)Must be patient with the people and be able to offer clear judgement in all issues
(iv)Must be honest and transparent
(v)Must be able to take steps without being directed
(vi)Must be able to organize and implement programmes

(i)Favourable weather condition and low importers of rice.
(ii)Reduction in the price of inputs.
(iii)Reduction in taxation which stimulates production or Importation of rice.

(i)Through urine
(ii)Through feces
(iii)through evaporation from the body surface and respiratory tract.


Waec Agricultural Science Answers 2023 for 18th May 2023 (Objective and Essay)

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